## Math, Patterns and Chiropractic Care

I think I’ve mentioned before, but I have some family in Miami.  In fact, I travel there enough to visit that I actually have a small insurance policy in the state of Florida. My Miami Chiropractor is one of my favorite doctor’s that I’ve ever met for a few reasons.  To start, like me, he loves patterns and the way they influence our lives.

He was saying that he has found a new way to treat back pain and it seems to work based on his testing.  What he does, is as much about allowing movement as it is about lining up our spines.  He said that the vast majority of his patients which suffer a significant injury had some significant swelling before the injury occured.  He now tries to reduce that swelling before treating the patient at all!

## Useful Formulas in Working Out IT Costs

If you’re in charge of a network you can spend an infinite amount of money and resources in defending that network.  This is simply because there are such a huge amount of threats and numerous ways of defending them.  However clearly not many organisations are going to be able to write a blank cheque to defend their network and data however valuable it may be to them.  There is a whole branch of specialised calculations that have been developed to assess these risks in order to try and defend against them.

An interesting calculation is the Annualised Loss Expectancy (ALE) which occurs when a threat pairing can be expected to happen more than once in a specified year.  ALE is not just used as an assessment in network defense it is equally valid in models which involve shoplifting, bad debt risks and hundreds of different areas.  The decision that any firm must make is “How many ALE events can we withstand as a company?”.   For instance say you own a web based mail order business – downtime on your website has direct cost implications.  If we consider DoS attacks (a favorite against commercial web sites) – imagine each one takes down your site for an average of two hours and you can expect this to happen three times a month?  How much should you spend to defend aganst this.

Protecting against DoS is a very good example simply because there is no real limit on  the amount you can spend.  Here’s the formula for calculating ALE –

SLE x Annulized Rate Occurence = Annual Loss Expectancy

It’s quite simple when you look through it, simply the the SLE multiplied by the number of expected events.  The total and cost obviously depend largely on  the calculation of SLE.  How about applying it to a different scenario – perhaps the amount of wasted time by employees surfing the web in a given day.  Lets imagine 500 employees and they spend 25% of their time messing around on the web on sites like Facebook and Twitter.

\$50/hr x 125 = \$6250

To calculate ALE from this figure we need to determine that they waste this money every single week except when they’re on holiday (lets give them only two weeks off the slackers!)

\$6250 x \$50 = \$312,500

Which is a serious amount of money wasted.  You could spend a small proportion of this amount in tightening up your internet gateway, make sure you put in restrictions and web filtering to block against the basic ninja surfing techniques and basically you’d be clawing back money lost pretty quickly.

## Maths Learning resources

There’s one thing for certain, if you have any inclination or need to improve your maths then the internet has the answers.  The web is literally stuffed full of maths courses, tutorials, explanations and puzzles.  Whatever your level there is no doubt that something will be available for you somewhere.

For this article I’d just like to briefly explain the maths resources that are available on the BBC web site.  The BBC is truly one of the most outstanding sites on the internet, it’s my favourite without doubt simply because of the breadth of information available.  The vast majority of it is is free, however due to certain copyright problems you might have trouble accessing the BBC Iplayer site if you’re outside the UK.  If you do have this problem – check this post out which shows you how to circumvent the BBC geotargeting efforts – http://www.anonymous-proxies.org/2009/02/using-iplayer-abroad-viewing-bbc-via.html.

So what is exactly on the BBC web site?

Well perhaps the most impressive information is on the basic level which is stored on something called ’Bitesize’.  This is primarily a schools educational resources teaching basic maths like addition, subtraction  and multiplication etc.  There’s a wonderful show on the World Service including one called Figure it Out. If you’re an adult who needs to learn maths for a very specific employment related purpose then check out Learn Direct – which has 42 free online maths courses specifically to improve basic numeracy.

For everyday finances, there’s the BBC Raw Website which deals with everyday maths problems like evaluating loans, mortgages and stuff like that.

## Individuals Life Involving Mathematical Aspects

Math is use in our everyday life constantly. Mathematical computation is something which we cannot live without. In the real life mathematics has great benefits for us like we can calculate easily and if we don’t know about maths we can not calculate easily. It plays a vital role in everyone’s daily life since the life of people dealt much on counting matters. Just Think about how can a certain person would possibly count the days, months, and years. For budgeting our expenses and organizing our financial assets daily is connected with math. But many can’t seem to realise that even in our daily business math does affect us more that just counting the coins at the grocery shop or calculating how big a carpet you want. Advanced mathematics are used in advanced softare tools such as business intelligence and analytics tools like the ones found at Analytics Tools which can help improve an entire business just by calculating various factores.

Certainly it is very important for life since it helps us to quantify all the visible and invisible things with which we are dealing in daily life. There are many uses of mathematics in real life most likely in jobs like accounting, banking , store manager or just working at a simple fast food store. It naturally helps us to have an objective views of different things around us which ewe dealt with. It helps our engineers, construction workers and even the carpenters making calculations about the things which are not physically developed like for buildings before construction or using analytics tools to see which part of a business is healthy enough to expand.

It helps us to have an idea that how much earning or spending has been done and would it be beneficial to do a certain activity or not. In today’s world mathematics is being applied everywhere like in the economy of a country, construction of buildings, marking and evaluation of persons. It would be appropriate to say that mathematics has helped a lot in achieving the fast speed life with all its comforts and delights. Maths is all around us. It is present in different forms; it is undeniably important that we take note of it like we do with modern business intelligence tools such as Business Intelligence Tools which can actually aid many large companies increase their economy just by using advanced math in order to show the proper data.

Things are measured or accurate due to maths. Mathematics has a prominent role to play in our daily life. We even didn’t realize that maths is involves in every sort of activities. Whenever we pick up the phone, manage the money, travel to some other place, unintentionally in all these things maths is involved. This is how mathematical factors affects the daily life of a certain human. We cannot deny that life will run smoothly without the presence of mathematics. Math is within humans life.

It is said that mathematics is said to be the mother of all sciences. It is absolutely mean that sciences that are evolved have a sound foundation in mathematics if we go further in debate it would be justified to say that the blessings of all these modern sciences and technologies are only possible with mathematics. There are many uses of mathematics in real life most likely in jobs like accounting, banking , store manager or just working at a simple fast food store. It is not all about formulas and calculations. Its a subject that has life in it. Mathematics is simple, interesting and delightful and also useful for you as a private person needing to find the size of your house, or the modern business owner wanting facts about his company using analytic tools or business intelligence. Solving life problems is certainly related to math. In fact mathematics is involved directly or indirectly wherever we go and every thing that we may use.

## Great Tool for Math Lovers

For most of the population, math is very much a love-it-or-hate-it subject.  For all the math lovers out there, however, there’s a great new tool that allows you to automatically calculate compound interest.  The interest calculator is a sleek new, intuitive web application that allows users to quickly and easily compute both simple and compound interest.

The subject of compound interest is an exciting one if you are talking about a bank account. When you are applying for a car loan or a mortgage, however, it is not as much fun. A compound interest calculator will show you the realities you face as holder of a substantial loan.

There are some items which are simply too expensive to pay for outright. These include homes, cars, university enrollment fees, or even braces for the kids. Depending on how much money you need and your current wages, a long term loan might be the only reasonable option for you. Interest added in this way is calculated against a new sum at each scheduled period, whether that is annually, semi-annually, or monthly. Interest applies to what is left of the loan. Although you pay more in the long run and can often feel like a hamster on a wheel when all you do is chase down interest, this does not always have to be the case.

For one thing, compound arrangements do not have to take you a long time to clear. Establish a quicker pay scheme from the outset. Certain institutions also allow customers to make extra payments without being penalized, or will even permit early completion for a small fee. Even this price will be less than the interest you were paying. Meanwhile, when times are tough you get to keep your car or house (and Junior keeps his newly straightened teeth) without having to worry about paying your loan off. Take a breather until your financial situation improves, invest in a high speed VPN and check out your options on other sites.

For the most part, banks benefit from this arrangement since it is hard to ever pay off compound interest on a five or six figure principal at a slow, steady rate. You really see this when you use a calculator. These are hosted by a number of websites that discuss mathematics and financial matters. Give the calculator your loan amount, rate of interest, the number of years you expect to be paying, and the fee schedule. With these numbers the calculator will tell you how much you need to pay monthly to complete this loan entirely.

Use this to ascertain the viability of your financial plans. Establish whether you can purchase a Mustang or a Honda. Decide whether or not to invest in a brand new model or a used one (remembering, of course, that a car depreciates in value from the minute you own it, unless it is a highly maintained classic). Decide whether you can afford a house with a Jacuzzi tub and bedrooms for all of the kids, or a townhouse where the kids will have to sleep in the tub. Compare your likely outgoings including utility bills, food, gas and other fees plus your new mortgage against the incomings you expect to be receiving. A compound interest calculator might influence a decision to continue renting for a while, or reassure you that a bigger house is accessible in the near future if you make some budget cuts.

Citations

Heather Collins – Quick IP Address Changer

## The Latent Variable

In 1904 Charles Spearman published a research paper that set the foundation of latent variable modelling. Introducing the concept of general intelligence or ‘g’ Spearman statistical contribution showed how to measure a latent variable which could not be observed.

Latent variables refer to a small number of hidden variables that impact and are the cause of variables that can be observed and recorded. Human behaviour is extremely complex and governed by more than one latent variable. For example, job performance can be linked to g, but a latent variable of social avoidance can lead to social anxiety.

Latent variable models rescale the variables enabling them to be interpreted in regards to correlations between what is observed and what can’t be observed. However care needs to be taken when interpreting the relations between individual observed variables and what psychological meaning can be attributed to those factors.

In statistical analysis of Latent Variables, there are a number of methods for estimating the (alpha) values, the most suitable is called maximum likelihood, but other methods have their purposes and produce similar results. However, most computer methods of statistical analysis, such as SPSS load the output of values in tables or loading matrix.

The main reasons that people conduct latent variable analysis is firstly to understand the relationship between different observed variable and the other is in regards to statistical procedures to calculate factor scores, for example using the regression method.

In organisational life cognitive ability is measured using pen and paper tests (or online equivalents) because of the importance of g in many areas of everyday functioning. For example, the ability to achieve academically, the likelihood of divorce and of involvement in criminal behaviour have all been linked to cognitive ability. In many circles it is believed that in measuring future job performance cognitive ability is the best predictor of job performance. However, g measures the maximum potential that a person may have and there is no agreed definition for intelligence.

However, in recent years, research has disputed this fact, and there has been an increase in the use of aptitude testing which seek out latent variables which could point to as yet unrecognised or untapped potential within an individual. In additional personality tests, which measure typical behaviour offer a glimpse in to behavioural traits, which have more relevance in regards to cultural fit, motivation, attitude and the ability to adapt and flex which are essential in todays market place.

Many Personality and Aptitude test specifically measure latent variables that are necessary in order for someone to be able to perform a job well. Research and statistical evidence which you can read online and on UK TV with a VPN  has produced a number of tests that are able to recognise a latent variable for being able to learn languages proficiently; even in people who have had no language training. Other tests measure whether someone is a super responder, that is they have the ability to recognise faces, a skill which was used to great affect in identifying the often hoodie wearing perpetrators of the London riots in 2011.

Very little is understood about what latent aptitude variables are necessary to perform specific job tasks within the organisation. Organisations build talent management programmes on ‘leadership’ talent often employing personality and cognitive ability tests to identify high potential individuals in their organisation. But these programmes very often miss 80% – 90% of the employee population.

Does this mean that these people lack talent? The challenge, and future research on talent needs to explore latent variables in order to understand what aptitudes led to favourable job performance. The need is for organisations to find an efficient way to identify the latent talent that exists in their entire employee population rather than restricting ‘talent’ to those whose talent can be measured by the current raft of tests and statistical validity today.

Citations

Helen Caldwell – Watching BBC iPlayer in Spain

## Review of Basic Math Apps for the iPhone

The iphone has revolutionized nearly every sector of people’s lives including the education sector. Probably in your days learning used to be a nightmare and particularly mathematics. However, this has changed after the introduction of iphone apps for basic math. Research reveals that the modern student faces a wide range of challenges in terms of the various distractions that surround him/her. Therefore if the educators are not going to use some of these basic math apps so that this learner may be able to concentrate and retain what he/she has learnt, very little learning will take place. These basic math apps come in the form of games such that the kid will not only be entertained but will also learn a few tips on how to handle math problems.

I have personally gone to the iTune store and discovered that there are numerous math apps which you can use with your kids. I particularly liked the Cute Math because it has simple problems and its settings are easy to handle. This means that you do not need someone to guide you into the whole process. The other advantage of Cute Math is that the learner will be able to step up his/her counting, addition and subtraction skills. In order to make the whole counting game interesting, the game is inbuilt with cutesy sound effects as well as relevant animation.

There’s another great app that allows you to watch all the US TV shows online or on any device.  They are simple VPN programs which can give you an IP address American Netflix and other channels like Hulu.

After the kid has completed these games, there is room for the kid to test what he/she has learnt. This implies that the kids will be able to assess their skills level and this could motivate them to want to play another different math game such as Math Magic.  Did you know that this is a perfect way in which you can use to keep your son/daughter occupied constructively and positively?

To get your own free Apple iPhone 4s, I recommend you to visit this site to also win an iPhone 4S like I have done:

Reference Source: Smart DNS vs VPN

## The Maths of Graphene

Graphene was made in 2004 by Andre Geim and other scientists. It a carbon allotrope consisting of a single molecule thick layer of carbon atoms held together by strong covalent bonds. Graphene has been described as a 2D material. It is the first material to be so-called and throws up certain theoretical questions.

Previously all matter was considered, no matter how small as belonging in 3 dimensions. This was the flaw of traditional paper based geometry – it was only in 2 dimensions and so could only exist in a theoretical form, much in a similar way that Plato’s ideal forms could not exist in the real world but somehow informed all matter and allowed us to grasp the beauty of things that approximated closer to the ideal form.

In physics graphene is viewed as a 2 dimensional substance that exists in 3D euclidean space. It sometimes referred to as an abstract surface. However, to exist such 2 dimensional surfaces must be curved and strained. This curvature and strain act on the charge carriers to create fields. These fields set up a magnetic influence that form cycles comparable to ’Lamor Cycles’.

The mathematician M. V. Karasev at the Moscow Insistute of Electronics and Mathematics has written up much of the math formulas to map the resulting forces caused by the curvature and strain set up by a two dimensional surface. You can find a copy of his important paper at: springerlink.com.

Discussing the math involved in dealing with 2D material also gives rise the possibility of being able to study and mathematically fix materials that can be detected in 4 or more dimensions. What magentic and and electrical characteristics would such material have?

The future may be a mystery, but the future seems to be always providing us with new ways to test our theoretical understanding of the world.

## A Basic Introduction to Cryptanalysis

When you look at a cryptogram for the first time, they nearly always look rather daunting after all how are you expected to decipher all that code!  However there are certain techniques that can make the task much less daunting and in some senses it is actually quite fun to work them out.

One of the most basic procedures is that of frequency analysis.  In fact without this technique you won’t get very far in understanding any of the procedures behind substitution cryptanalysis. So let’s try and briefly explain what’s behind this technique in an effort to expand our mathematical education.

Cryptanalysis relies on the fact that all letters of a specific language have specific characteristics or personalities.  To the ordinary observer all the letters might look fairly similar, but to the analyst they will know the specific traits and characters of each individual letter.

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

GJXV EHRT NUCOT WMOHY UWGK HWIE

Don’t try and decipher this example though – there’s nothing there.  The cryptanalyst would initially begin by counting each letters frequency and it’s contacts (the contacts are the letters which are adjacent. They would then construct a frequency table based on the text.  This can then be compared with a standard frequency table based on a similar number of words.  This table will list the likely frequency of each individual letter – i.e how often it would be expected to appear.
Unfortunately it is rarely as simple to line up your standard frequency table and the one you created to solve the cryptogram.  They are very unlikely to be identical even for the reason that they will be based on a different number of characters.  However it is surprising how little relative frequencies shift from one piece of text to another.  You will almost always find e,t,a,o,n,r, i, s and h in the high frequency areas whereas d,l,u, c and m will normally be found in the medium frequency group.
It’s useful to see how the basics work in encryption, especially if you use such technology to protect yourself online.  For example I can use a technology to spoof my IP called a Virtual private network which creates an encrypted tunnel between the client, effectively hiding the IP address of my client.
Using frequency you can narrow down to distinct groups each individual letter, often with very accurate results.  However you need more than this to focus more specifically on a possible solution and this is where ’contacts’ are important.  Every letter has a cluster of associations that are likely to occur.  In fact an experienced cryptanalyst can spot these associations almost without thinking when presented with a frequency distribution and a tally chart.

## Math and Wine

I don’t think many of us draw the connection between what amounts to our favorite alcohol and math.  It’s there if you take the time to look though.

To start, think about your favorite bottle of wine.  Or more simply, think about any of the 90 point wine clubs which exist only to find those exact bottles.

The real question is how winemakers are able to craft wine which is of that high quality. There is, without a doubt more science involved than you might think.  Most of us believe that a winemaker walks through a vineyard throughout October and tastes grapes.  When the grapes taste just right they are picked and then left alone to ferment and create the wine we drink on a nightly basis.

While that certainly happens in some places-at most wineries these days winemaking is more science than art.  Wineries employ full time chemists (they call them enologists, but they’re nothing more than chemists) who test the sugar levels of grapes before the winemaker becomes involved at all.

I think we all know that math is incredibly important, but did you know how much math really went into that bottle of wine you’re enjoying with dinner?